Gynecomastia is a disease involving the enlargement of the breast gland in men. The term can be translated from Greek as “feminine breast”. The unnatural enlargement of the breast gland is often associated with hormonal imbalance that can develop if female sex hormones prevail in the man’s body.
Types of gynecomastia
Gynecomastia can be divided into several types:
Pseudogynecomastia is the build-up of fatty tissue around the men’s breast glands. Overweight men often complain about large breasts. The breast gland is soft on palpation, the fatty tissue resembles usual subcutaneous fatty tissue.
Fibroadipose gynecomastia, when the breast gland is filled with fatty and fibrous tissue. In this condition, the breast remains the same size after weight loss and becomes fairly noticeable.
True gynecomastia, when the breast gland has dense glandular tissue with lobular structure characteristic of female breast glands.
Main causes of gynecomastia
Gynecomastia may develop in the following cases:
administration of steroids, hypotensive agents and antidepressants;
imbalance of male and female hormones;
testicle, adrenal or pituitary gland tumors;
Indications to the surgeryIndications to surgery is enlargement and painfulness of breast glands and psychological discomfort in men. Operative treatment is used if conservative treatment was unsuccessful.Ultrasound tests and breast mammography are performed to assess the size of the breast gland and fatty tissue. The patient is necessarily photographed before the surgery. Before surgery, blood steroid level is assessed, chest X-ray is performed, general urine and blood tests and blood coagulability test are taken.A consultation of oncologist-mammologist is required to rule out the tumor. Histological examination of the resected glandular tissue is recommended after surgery.Characteristics of the surgery and post-operative periodSurgical treatment of gynecomastia in Kyiv involves breast reduction or liposuction. The duration of operation is 1.5-2 hours, it is performed under local or general anesthesia.Characteristics of the surgery depending on the type of gynecomastia:
In case of true gynecomastia,a small semilunar incision is made along the lower edge of the areola, allowing resection of part of the breast gland and fatty tissue. Cosmetic stitches are put in, and a drainage tube is set up.
In case of pseudogynecomastia,fatty tissue is resected through punctures using liposuction. Surgeons often perform a combined operation resecting excessive subcutaneous fat by liposuction along with glandular tissue.
The post-operative period is accompanied by slight pain, sometimes bleeding and hematomas. Cyanosis and breast gland swelling are resolved by the end of the first week. Special compression underwear should be worn after the surgery.